KMMCS in heavy protected and in civil version in agricultural use
Beside for demining purposes KMMCS machines also can be used in several areas of agriculture. That´s where the developement of the cutter and tiller machines by Walter Krohn originate from.
These forestal and farming use are:
Agricultural use can be in a follow up of the demining operation during the last step of the clearance fixed in the Standard Operating Procedure. The full area size control by inspectors enables to use agricultural equipment. By the control pass simultaneously a seed of crop or planting of seedlings is possible.
1. Recultivation, Replantation
Forest recultivation -also called reforestation- might be necessary after damages by storms or after break of trees from heavy snow load. Also after forest fire the damaged area normally is recultivated, which makes it necessary to prepare the ground. KMMCS works at large areas and shredders all material from fallen trees, remaining stumps and bushes into small pieces. The mill turns counter drive direction and by that takes soil and overlay shelf, incl. the stalks. The teeth move this material towards the upperside steel wall, break all and mill the shelf, if desired with the earlier placed lime into the soil. Important is, that the underlaying layer is not used as abutment, so the base surface is not compacted. In addition the machine works with almost no vibration and in spite of the huge weight has only a little ground pressure, -comparable to a human standing at one food- so also no compression from this.
It mills all this organic material into the full volume of soil, down to a depth of max. one meter. In this up to
By that the Krohn machines loosens the ground in a definite manner and can compact it to the desired grade of densification. Done so, the recultivation or reforestation can start immediatelly, as ground is ideal prepared for healthy grown up of plants by better fertilization with more equally mixed nutrients and by the scarified soil.
The produced layer of mixed soil of an usual milling is 35 to 40 cm and with so little compactness that it might be regarded to drive over it a second time to reach a density of 1 kg/dm³.
The machine first was build soleily for mechanical planting in difficult soil with a lot of overlay shelf. It turned out that the machines also were useful in combined operation of work-in lime simultaneously with the deep loosing of soil and its deep liming.
Much old wood is milled into the soil.
This is the same methode like for renewal of plantations as e.g. for cotton with one year. At bananas plantage, where the once in lifetime flowering types have a lifetme of two years, but also the types with lifetime of several years with repetitive fruit grow will be cut after certain time. They can be cut, chopped and milled incl. trunks, roots and branches into full volume of soil by Krohn machines.
At Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) KMMCS makes the work of cutting all roots, chipping and mixing all remained biomass of stump and roots equally into the soil after the harvest of trees or coppice as energy crop.
SRF is the practice of cultivating fast-growing trees that reach their economically optimum size between eight and 20 years old. Species used are selected on this basis and include Alder, Ash, Southern Beech, Birch, Eucalyptus, Poplar, Willow, new varieties of paulownia elongata, Paper mulberry, Australian Blackwood and Sycamore.
Other plants´ profit decrease after few years and they were burned down usually. Nutrients and biomass would be lost then. Instead of such procedure Krohn machines cut the trees with its max. 30 cm diameter and bushes or shrubs into small pieces and mills all into soil in just one path. All contained microorganisms, nutrition and biomass is saved for next generation, which leds to higher fertility and increased profit.
Chaos in forest after hurricane.
Krohn machines clearing tree stumps and mill in all the organic material into soil.
Several scientific research had been done around 1990-1992 to check
the abilities and borders of use of the machines. For example:
FTI FORSTTECHNISCHE INFORMATIONEN, Announcements from "KURATORIUM FÜR WALDARBEIT UND FORSTTECHNIK"
with several articles:
HOFMANN, R.: Die Waldfräse der Fa. Krohn - Chance oder Risiko? (S. 57)
BENECKE, P.: Die Krohnsche Maschine - Eine Chance für restaurationsbedürftige Waldböden? (S. 58 ff)
HORN, R.; LEBERT, M.: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der physikalischen Bodenrekultivierung in der Forstwirtschaft (S. 61 ff)
SCHULTE-KARRING. H.; SCHRÖDER. D.: Die totale Waldbodensanierung, eine Voraussetzung für den erfolgreichen Wiederaufbau der Wälder (S. 66 ff)
SCHÜLER, G.: Auswirkungen einer intensiven Bodenbearbeitung mittels einer neuartigen Stockfräse auf den Nährelementhaushalt eines Waldstandortes (S. 69 ff)
2. Forest Fire Preventer
|KMMCS is usable also as forest fire preventer and forest fire breaker.
Forest fire prevention can happen in the moment of a fire running already with fire break corridors or in precaution action as fire prevention corridors.
In advantage to usual cut of trees the advanced fire suppression methode of Krohn machines KMMCS shredders all organic material into pieces and can distribute
it equally into the soil. Nothing is laying at top of soil and also the trunks and roots are fragmented, so fire can not proceed neither on top of soil nor
underneath as subsurface fire. That way no minerals, nutrients and biomass is lost by fire.
Krohn machines already had worked to cut fire break corridor at village Weisswasser, Germany near border to Poland. There a 60 m wide fire break corridor was cut faster and easier than all other traditional activities could have done. This prevented the forest fire to proceed above the soil and suppressed the proceed below surface.
3. Soil Improvement
4. Soil Rehabilitation
This substrate, in case of sludge typically laied with 30-50 cm height on the soil, will be milled in. It can also be copropel, slush, slurry, silt, or glaur or glacial till e.g. from subway tunnel construction like our soil remediation at sewage farm in Berlin, Germany. All type will be warped.
This decontamination of polluted land results in fertile substrate with lower concentration of noxious substances like heavy metals. They are adsorbed by the substrate and are not that much biogen usable by the plants. They had been processed from thin layer with high concentration into thick layer with low concentration and adsorbed to the additional substrate.
KMMCS can work down to 1m into soil to mill in material for soil improvement (Rinsefield by Berlin) White soil-line is border to untouched depth.
Through the improvement of the soil structure, nutrient utilization, soil life and microbial activity are stimulated and the resupply of plant nutrients is promoted. Then immediate planting is possible, stimulation of the soil life and better root penetration ensure healthier plants grow better as before. Strenghtened plants create more biomass, more flowering occurs and the flowering time lasts longer. Full chain of biological chain yield a result.
Krohn machines had done that milling for soil rehabilitation next to Berlin, Germany, at 12 ha, accompanied by research of Technical University Berlin. This area is a local recreation area now with educational stations.
5. First Areal Use
6. Counteract Desertification
7. Soil Improvement by adapted Terra Preta
8. Dust Reduction
Depleted Uranium particles from ammunition have the same radioactive effect as the mostly feared Plutonium, well in everyones focus since the circumstances in Nuclear Powerplant Fukushima, Japan. Same as Plutonium also Uranium, even though depleted Uranium, is emitting -particles. These nanosized -particles have short range of few cm, but cause desastrous effects when they are incorporated, be it in lungh or gastro-intestinal tract. These particles radiate the cells in their direct surrounding. Adequat protection to personell and precautions to protect environment from radioactive particle dust is inevitable.
9. Soil Compaction
KMMCS - Maschinelle Minenräumung und Bodensanierung
(KMMCS - Mechanical Mine Clearance and Soil Rehabilitation)
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